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Research Library

We provide detailed summaries and citations for peer-reviewed research articles as well as links to those that are publicly available, or to publishers’ websites when not publicly available. Access via an educational institution or payment may be required in some cases to access full studies and source documents.

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We are currently updating our search tags. At this time, we recommend you use keyword search to best access our full research collection.
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Population

Gender of the population of interest
Male
Female
Transgender
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Age of the population of interest
Infancy (birth – 1 year)
Toddlerhood (1-3 years)
Early Childhood (3-5 years)
Middle Childhood (6-12 years)
Adolescence (13-18 years)
Young Adulthood (19-24 years)
Adult (24-64 years)
Seniors (65+)
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Special Populations
Children with emotional or behavioral difficulties
Children with ADD/ADHD or other cognitive difficulties
Children with physical disabilities
Pregnant women
Parents
Families
Teachers/Educators
Immigrant populations
Refugee populations
Survivors of disaster, trauma or war
Economically disadvantaged populations
Homeless Populations
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Demographics of U.S. population of interest
African American
American Indian or Alaska Native
Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
Asian American
Non-Hispanic White
Hispanic or Latino
Two or more (multi-ethnic persons)
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Methods

Study Designs
Case Study
Correlational Study
True Experiment with random assignment
Quasi-experimental design
Qualitative data
Quantitative data
Theoretical/Conceptual Article
Meta-analysis
Research Summary
Systematic Literature Review
Participatory Research/Design
Other
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Settings
City
Neighborhood
Rural
Agricultural
Wilderness/back country
Forests
Water
Parks (local, city, regional)
School, schoolyard, school garden
Nature preschool
Forest school
Camp (summer camp, family camp or other out-of-school time setting)
Informal environmental education setting (nature center, outdoor education center, zoo, museum)
Childcare center or grounds
Nature playground
Children’s garden
Urban garden (e.g. community garden, "allotment")
Residential landscape or garden
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Forms of Nature Engagement
Environmental living context / green settings (e.g. green neighborhoods)
Free play in nature
Learning in nature - Academic subjects (e.g. math, reading)
Learning in nature - Environmental education
Learning in nature - Place-based education
Learning in nature - Green schoolyards/school gardens
Learning in nature - Nature kindergartens/preschools/forest schools
Viewing nature- View out a window
Viewing nature- View through screen/technology
Back country adventure/travel
Gardening, agriculture, foraging
Volunteer and stewardship activities (e.g. trail work, stream clean-up)
Therapeutic use of nature (e.g. therapeutic animal, horticultural therapy, shinrin-yoku)
Technological nature (e.g. robotic pets, remote gardening)
Green exercise
Outdoor recreation (e.g. hiking, camping, sledding)
Fishing, hunting
Pet ownership
Intentional engagement with challenge/risk
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Design for Nature Access
Check if research to Inform Design for Nature Access
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Outcomes

Physical Health Benefits
General health
Blood pressure
Physical activity
Physical fitness
Diet/nutrition
Weight, body mass index, obesity
Immune function
Asthma relief
Birth outcomes
Eyesight
Vitamin D
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Physical Health Risks
Animal bites
Asthma/respiratory problems
Traumatic injury (e.g. falls, fractures)
Pesticides
Poisonous plants
Sunburn/skin cancer
Stings/dermatological reactions
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Mental Health Benefits
Restoration
Mood enhancement (e.g. anxiety, depression)
Stress relief
Well-being / happiness
Resilience
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Mental Health Risks
Fear, anxiety resulting from nature
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Academic Function
Engagement in school and learning
Attitudes toward school and learning
School attendance
Behavior in school
Academic achievement (e.g. grades, test scores, graduation rates)
Academic knowledge and skills (e.g. in science, math, social studies)
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Occupational Function
Occupational function (e.g. performance on the job)
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Cognitive Function
Attention skills
Attention restoration
Memory
Creativity
Problem-solving
Language development
Executive Function (mental control, self-regulation)
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Motor Function
Motor function (e.g. coordination, strength and skills)
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Social/Emotional Function
Pro-social behavior (e.g. cooperation, helping behaviors)
Emotional regulation
Self-esteem
Social connection/friendship
Community social capital
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Efficacy
Perceived agency/efficacy/competence
Leadership
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Play Behaviors and Styles
Play Behaviors and Styles
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Conservation values, knowledge and behaviors
Connection to nature or a natural place
Ecological/environmental identity
Pro-environmental ethics, values, attitudes
Environmental reasoning
Knowledge about conservation or the environment
Pro-environmental/stewardship behaviors
Volunteerism
Civic involvement
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Social Justice
Social Justice
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Barriers

Barriers to Nature Engagement
Weather
Fear of nature
Lack of awareness of nature’s benefits
No interest/loss of interest
Accessibility issues (e.g. for the disabled)
Overscheduled time/perceived lack of time
Safety concerns (e.g. traffic, stranger danger, fear of crime, hunting)
Device/technology/media/screen time use
Absence of or cost of programming
Equipment needed
Distance from nature opportunities (lack of nearby nature)
Regulatory/licensure/liability/permitting concerns
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